AGM CON-TESTProduct Group Analysis
Product Group Analysis
Sheet / Round / Tubular Steel Products
Full Metallographic Analysis
AGM CON-TEST provides a fast and accurate analysis of steel and steel products. Our reports include all elements above the lower detection limits with no additional charge.
- low-carbon and carbon steel
- alloy steel
- tool steel
- stainless steel
Tensile Testing & Tensile Strength
Tensile testing is a form of mechanical testing services used to calculate the tensile strength (also known as ‘ultimate strength’) of a material. This tests the maximum amount of force that a material can withstand while being pulled from either end before ‘necking’ (necking is a form of tensile deformation where lots of strain will localize in one area of the material resulting in a part of the material straining more than the rest and creating a visible ‘neck’ in the sample – this neck will then become weaker and eventually be prone to snapping completely). This then, like other forms of mechanical testing, can be used to dictate the use of the material and to test suitability for particular applications.
Like other forms of mechanical testing services, often the tensile strength will be recorded qualitatively as falling under the category of ‘brittle’ or ‘ductile’ and this at a glance can help to dictate the material’s use.
Normally testing will involve taking a small sample of the material which will have a fixed cross-section area where necking is likely to occur. The material is then pulled using a controlled but gradually increasing force until the point at which the sample changes shape and necking occurs, or a which it completely breaks.
During tensile testing of metals, indentation hardness will correlate linearly with tensile strength. This relation allows for the economical testing of bulk metal using lightweight and portable equipment.
Bend testing is one of many mechanical testing services used to test the strength of a material and it’s ductility when placed under pressure. This then helps to advise manufacturing companies and designers on which metals are suitable for use in which products and how products using certain materials should be used. Here essentially the material will be subjected to testing and it will be recorded what the amount of pressure required is for it to bend and for it to eventually break. After the item is bent, the material will be inspected for cracks etc on the outer surface. In other cases bend testing can be carried out with three or four points in the bend to test the material’s properties under particular circumstances.
To begin with the test material will be cut into rectangular bars. In other cases the bend testing will be used on whole samples of the material as they are intended to be used. This is often the case with microelectronics applications.
Bend testing essentially does what it says on the tin and involves testing a material’s ability to bend. This has many uses in engineering and allows the user to determine how much weight the item can bear and whether it will snap at a certain point beyond this or simply distort.
Bend testing generally uses what’s known as the three point bending flexural test and this will provide precise values for the ‘modulus’ of elasticity. The three point bending flexural test essentially refers to the material being bent as we would expect it to be – by either end being clamped in position while pressure presses down on the centre. This will then slowly bend the centre of the material until it snaps, thereby revealing the flexibility of the substance. This is the easiest way to load a material.
One downside of this method of course is that it is destructive meaning that the material will lose its shape and won’t be re-useable in its current form. At the same time the results are sensitive to many confounding factors such as the precise positioning of the material and other aspects.
Formability of Sheet Metal | Circle Grid Analysis
Circle Grid Analysis (known also by many other names such as Circle Grid Strain Analysis or just as an acronym) is a form of mechanical testing used to measure the strain thresholds of sheet metal after part of it is formed by stamping. The clue as to the method in which this is achieved is suggested in the name, whereby a grid of circles with a specific diameter is drawn onto the area of the sheet metal to be formed. Once that piece of sheet metal has been formed, the circles should have been stretched into ellipses and this will help with the next stage of circle grid analysis. Here the longest part of the ellipse (the major strain as it is known) is measures along with shortest part, in order to determine how near to splitting or fracturing a stamped piece is (when combined with prior knowledge about type of sheet metal used among other factors). This can be used to help predict potential problems before they arise.
AGM CON-TEST performs a number of tests having objectives to answer a number of customer’s questions on formability of specific steel grade, or of a part form, or of other factors affecting the formability. Among the methods we apply are the bend/guided bend test of steel, a comprehensive tensile testing of steel providing the cold working exponent values (n-value), plastic strain ratio values (r-value and r-bar value), bake hardening index (BHI-values), etc. as well as a relatively new, extremely efficient and widely used circle grid analysis – a method capable of saving a lot of money and downtimes in a cold-forming/manufacturing process.
- circle grid analysis
- flatten/flare test
- bend test
- tensile test comprehensive
Based on both an in-depth scientific knowledge and the rich experience in various fields of mechanical engineering and metallurgy especially in heat-treating of steel and numerous testing methods acquired by our lead expert, as well as our technical capabilities, AGM CON_TEST performs the failure analysis of various products. Along with applications of advanced fractography, metallurgical, chemical and other analyzes, we also offer a minimal support in evaluating the problem and consult the customers on possible and most efficient technical solutions (consulting side of the process).
Failure is nothing to be afraid of, and in fact should be seen as a crucial part of the design process. We all make mistakes then, but it is learning from them which is important. With failure analysis this is turned into a science in a way that has very real concrete benefits and can help you to design the perfect object.
In failure analysis data will be collected and analyzed to determine the cause of any mechanical failure. During the testing phases this will happen often and will allow you to more quickly identify the exact problems with products in development and so help to get them out into the commercial market more quickly. At the same time failure analysis services can also be used on existing and even popular products as a way to find their limits and thresholds (and so to advise customers correctly) and to improve the products further. Failure in this sense needn’t necessarily mean that the mechanical object goes up in flames either, but might refer more simply to the item being tested using ‘non destructive’ testing methods in which the product will still be intact even if it should fail. As such then, any form of mechanical testing could be considered to be a form of failure analysis, though as a general rule the term is used to the more forensic skill of backtracking to find where something went wrong.
Failure Testing and Failure Analysis
Failure testing and failure analysis is the process of testing a mechanical piece of equipment and then trying to deduct why it failed and suggest improvements. Here then a prototype version of the eventual end product or system will be tested under the conditions it might reasonably be expected to be used, and then where failure occurs forensics will be carried out to find out why so that future iterations might improve the product and its effectiveness.
Regardless of what’s being manufactures then, failure testing is very important to ensure the product and service won’t fail under the circumstances it is intended to be subjected to. At the same time failure analysis will allow for the results of the test to be inspected more thoroughly so that changes can be made to the product in order to make it more fit for purpose.
When a product fails, often this is due to a particular component or material used within the system giving out. Failure analysis will be used to identify specifically which material or component is responsible for the failure and then advise on changes. For example, it might be that one of the materials has experienced necking after which the material will likely be subjected to tensile testing so that its limits are found and you can be advised on future use of the material. At the same time, if the material is wholly unsuitable it can then be replaced to another material after that material has been subjected to a battery of mechanical testing services.
Failure testing aims to occur before the problem occurs while failure analysis is usually used after the system has broken down. Often the two will be used together. The specifics of the failure testing and the failure analysis will vary depending on the industry you are working in.
Failure Analysis for Product Development
Failure analysis services are those that collect and analyse data after a mechanical or structural failure in order to identify the cause of the problem. This is a vital tool for the development of new products and the improvement of existing products which often take a ‘trial and error’ approach during manufacturing in order to ‘evolve’. Here the products are simply tested under certain circumstances, and then failure analysis services are used to identify what needs to be changed to improve the product so that it would withstand those events in future.
Failure analysis will look at multiple components of a design to try and find that ‘weak link’ that caused the failure. This can be the material that the mechanism is made out of itself, the fasteners or the welding. When used in conjunction with other mechanical testing services such as weld inspection testing services and proof load strength of fasteners services this can be used to quickly design a product that is highly reliable and durable and will be able to withstand various loads, temperatures and situations.
Product Group Analysis
Weld Inspection & Qualification
Weld inspection is as it may sound a highly important job in which the strength of a weld is tested. Welding is achieved as most of us know by heating up metal to the point where it can be used to ‘fuse’ to another piece of metal once cooled. In this sense attaching two separate pieces of metal eventually they should almost be one single piece of metal in terms of strength and appearance. This is generally the most secure way of making any kind of attachment across two pieces of metal.
While this is of course generally a good thing about welding, it does also mean that the welds are used in all manner of crucial areas and builds. Welding is used in almost any weight bearing mechanism or device and this means that any failure for the join could result in serious injury or malfunction. For example should the welding on a piece of scaffolding prove unstable then it could collapse and not only cause people to fall, but potentially crush people underneath.
This then is where weld inspection comes in and should be carried out on all areas that have been welded together. Welding inspection services can be used for this and should be considered as highly important investments as well as something of a health insurance for anyone working with or around your welding. As such getting weld inspection should be seen as a moral imperative, but will also save you a lot of money on repairing broken items, on sick pay for injured staff and on expensive lawsuits. By also getting weld inspection for your products you’re selling you can also prevent items from being recalled or needing to be replaced and can save money this way. In this respect your money spent on weld inspection will actually pay for itself as you lose less profit as a result and lower overheads. Furthermore, by ensuring that you are putting out a quality product that won’t continually break or fail, you can also improve the reputation of your business and thereby ensure that you get more good reviews and recommendations and repeat custom in future. Weld inspection then is a way to future proof your company.
Weld inspection testing will involve ‘weld verification’ to test the welding procedure against set specifications which will look at the temperature of the base of the metal before the welding process which will affect the quality of the final weld. Similarly it will also dictate the correct speed for the welding to cool and the materials used in the process.
Of course the main aim of weld inspection however is to test the strength of a specific weld once it’s made. In many cases it will be important to test the strength of this weld without damaging it (it may be okay to damage the welding during a weld test if the item is a cheap prototype, but this can become costly with more expensive designs). As such then the best weld inspection tests are called ‘non-destructive’ referring to the fact that they don’t destroy the welding at the same time as examining it so that it can still be used.
There are numerous non-destructive methods to test the strength of a weld and this includes ultrasonic, magnetic particle, radiographic and liquid penetrant. These then can test the density and the solidity of the weld material without having to break it. For example using ultrasonic weld inspection it is possible to test the weld for cracks or weaknesses by subjecting it to ultrasonic sound.
Weld Inspection Testing
Weld inspection testing is a highly important service among mechanical inspection services. In mechanical engineering and design, welds are used to join metal surfaces at high temperatures. If this is used in consumer products, or industrial equipment, then it is highly important that they be secure enough to prevent any potential breakages or accidents. As they are often subjected to loads and fatigue during their lifetime, this means that there is a chance that they can fail over time even if they were secure when first used meaning that they need to meet specific specifications.
Weld inspection testing services then provide ‘weld verification‘ to ensure that all the correct specifications have been met. For example the base of the metal must have been a certain temperature for the welding process to begin, and must cool at a specific speed. The correct materials must be used also. Using a range of ‘non-destructive’ weld inspection techniques it is possible to test the durability and security of the weld and thus infer that the weld adhered to the specifications.
Ultrasonic Non-Destructive Weld Inspection
Weld inspection testing services are the process of testing the strength of a piece of welding in order to test the strength and reliability of welding jobs and so the strength of the mechanical systems they are attached to. Weld inspection testing services are a form of mechanical testing services that are designed to test the structural integrity of products and equipment to check that they are safe and fit for purpose.
Of course weld inspection testing services cannot rely on the same kinds of testing as other materials (such as Charpy impact testing) as it would damage the product. As such weld inspection testing services use a variety of different techniques. Ultrasonic non-destructive testing is one technique which is well established and relatively reliable. Here ultrasonic noise is used to identify any potential cracks or imperfections without damaging the welding. This is the most popular form of weld inspection, but is just one of many different types of non-destructive weld inspection including ultrasonic, magnetic particle, liquid penetrant, radiographic and others.
Product Group Analysis
Bolted joints are some of the most common fasteners used in construction and other design. Bolted joints consist of cap screws (or studs) that are used to capture and join other parts together then secured with a ‘mating’ of screw threads. There are two types of this bolted joint – in one the bolt is tightened in to a calculated clamp load used torque. This must be designed so that the clamp load is enough to overcome the joint and this can be assessed with proof load strength of fasteners services.
The other type of bolted joint design doesn’t have a clamp load, but instead relies on the strength of the bolt shaft. This can include clevice linkages (joints which move) and others that rely on a locking mechanism such as lock washers. Again these should be subjected to testing by proof load strength of fasteners services if they are going to be bearing any significant weight and particularly if they are going to be crucial to the safety of people using them.
Full Metallographic Analysis
Case Depth, Depth of Decarburization, Micro-Hardness, etc
Mechanical Properties in Tensile Test
Axial, Wedge, and Proof Load
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